Pathways Resources

Pathways to Toronto was a meticulously researched exhibit put together by Digital History Students from the University of Toronto Scarborough and Global Cultures and Museums students from the Museum Studies program at the University of Toronto's iSchool. To see a full list of sources used for the exhibit, please see below.

Sources

Acedo, C., Adams, D.K., & Popa, S. (2012). Quality and qualities: tensions in education reforms. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Aiyar, Sana. (2015). Indians in Kenya. The Politics of Diaspora. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Historical Studies.

Asian African Heritage Trust. (2014). 2000-2005 Exhibition. Asian African Heritage Trust Retrieved April 2, 2016, from http://www.asianafricanheritage.com/old-exhibition.htm

Babou, Cheika Anta. (2010). Decolonization or National Liberation: Debating the end of British   colonial rule in Africa. The Annals of the American Academy, 632, 41-54.

BBC News. (2013, October 1). How the Nairobi attack has shaken Kenya’s Indians. BBC News UK. Retreived from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia- india-24327554

BBC. (2005). 1968: More Kenyan Asians flee to Britain. BBC NEWS. Retrieved February 25, 2016, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/4/newsid_2738000/273862 9.stm

BBC News. (2004, September 24) The Hindu Community. BBC Gloucestershire. Retrieved from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/gloucestershire/untold_stories/asian/hindu_community.shtml

BBC News. (n.d.). The Story of Africa. Independence. BBC World Service. Retrieved April 2, 2016 from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/14chapter10.shtml

BBC News. (2012, August 8). Ugandan Asians advert ‘foolish’, says Leicester Councillor. BBC News UK. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england- leicestershire-19165216

BBC News. (2003, January 1). UK ‘did not want Ugandan Asians’. BBC News UK. Retrieved from  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/2619049.stm

Bhatia, Prem. (1973) Indian Ordeal in Africa. London: Vikas Publishing House Ltd.

Bharati, Agehananda. (1972). The Asians in East Africa: Jayhind and Uhuru. Chicago:Nelson Hall Company.

Bhowmick, Nilanjana. (2008, December 5). Kenya’s Wahindis: The uneasy life of Indians in Kenya. LittleIndia. Retrieved from http://www.littleindia.com/nri/4417-kenya- 039-s-wahindis.html

Bly, David. (2006, March 19). Out of Africa: Thousands of Ismaili Muslims expelled from their African homelands in the 1970s have thrived in Canada. The Calgary Herald. Retrieved from http://www.canada.com/calgaryherald/news/observer/story.html?id=4d43f2e2-2ccf-4234-96f4- 35e853c20679

The Canadian Encyclopedia. (n.d.). South Asian Canadians. The Canadian Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/south-asians/

The Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21. (n.d). Canadian Immigration Acts and Legislation. Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21. Retrieved April 2, 2016, from    http://www.pier21.ca/research/immigration-history/canadian- immigration-acts-and-legislation

Chao. (2014, October 26). The Lunatic Express – A photo essay on the Uganda Railway. The Agora. Retrieved from http://www.theeagora.com/the-lunatic- express-a- photo-essay- on-the- uganda-railway/

Conkiln Frederking, Lauretta. (2007). Economic and Political Integration in Immigrant Neighborhoods: Trajectories of Virtuous and Vicious Cycles. Selinsgrove, PA: Susquehanna University Press.

Daily Nation. (2013, August 5). Asians face mass expulsion to Britain as Africanisation starts. Daily Nation. Retrieved April 2, 2016, from http://www.nation.co.ke/Features/DN2/Asians-face- mass-expulsion- to-Britain/-   /957860/1936760/-/15ptm5sz/- /index.html

Daman Singh, Sarva and Singh, Mahavir. (2003). Indians Abroad. London: Millennium Press.

Employment and Social Services Canada. (2013). Snapshot of racialized Poverty in Canada. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from Employment and Social Services Canada  http://www.esdc.gc.ca/eng/communities/reports/poverty_profile/snapshot.shtml

Evans, Ruth. (2000 ,May 24). Kenya’s Asian heritage on display. BBC News Online. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/762515.stm

Evans, Ruth. (2011, July 18). New lease of life for Kenya’s ‘lunatic’ railway. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-14151372

Exploring 20th Century England. (n.d.). East African Crisis 1968-1976. Exploring 20th Century England. Retrieved from http://www.20thcenturylondon.org.uk/east-african-asian-crisis-1968-1976

The Encyclopedia Britannica. (2014, September 5). Indian Mutiny. The Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/event/Indian-Mutiny

Ghai, D., Ghai, Y. eds. (1970). Portrait of a Minority: Asians in East Africa. Revised edition. London: Oxford University Press.

Ghosh, Palash. (2012, March 13). Uganda: The Legacy of Idi Amin’s Expulsion of Asians in 1972.  International Business Times. Retrieved from http://www.ibtimes.com/uganda-legacy-idi- amins-expulsion- asians-1972- 214289

Glassman, D., Noidoo, J. & Wood, F. (2010). Community Schools in Africa: Reaching the Unreached. New York: Springer.

Hamshire, C.E. (1968, March). The Uganda Railway. History Today, 18(3). Retrieved from http://www.historytoday.com/ce-hamshere/uganda- railway

Herzig, Pascale. (2010). Communal networks and gender: placing identities among South Asians in Kenya. South Asian Diaspora, 2(2), 165–184.

High Commission of India in Nairobi. (2016, February) India-Kenya Relations. Retrieved from http://www.hcinairobi.co.ke/india-kenya- overview

Hussain, Umara. (2003). Our untold stories: the Asian community in Gloucestershire. Gloucestershire: County Library Arts and Museum Service.

International Business Times. (2012, March 13). Uganda: The Legacy of Idi Amin’s Expulsion of Asians in 1972. International Business Times. Retrieved April 2, 2016, from          http://www.ibtimes.com/uganda-legacy- idi-amins- expulsion-asians- 1972-214289

The Ismailis. (2015). His Highness the Aga Khan. Islamic Publications Limited. Retreived from: http://www.theismaili.org/

Keller, E. (1985). Development Policy and the Evaluation of Community Self-Help: The Harambee school movement in Kenya. Studies in Comparative International Development, 18(4), 53-75.

Kenyan Government. (2013). The National Museums and Heritage Act, 2006. Kenya Law.  Retrieved April 2, 2016, from http://www.kenyalaw.org:8181/exist/kenyalex/actview.xql?actid=CAP.%20216

Konadu-Agyemang, Kwadwo. (1999). Characteristics and migration experience of Africans in Canada with specific reference to Ghanaians in Greater Toronto. Canadian Geographer, 43(4), 400-414.

Kumar Sahoo, A. and Sangha, D. (2010). Diaspora and cultural heritage: the case of Indians in Canada. Asian Ethnicity, 11(1), 81-94.

Lahiri, Shompa. (2013). South Asian Migration History Timeline. The National Archives. Retrieved March 2, 2016, from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.movinghere.org.uk/galleries/histories/asian/asian.htm

Lone, Salim. (1971, October 7). The Lost Indians of Kenya. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved from http://www.nybooks.com/articles/1971/10/07/the-lost- indians-of-kenya/

Look Lai, Walton. (1993). Indentured Labor, Caribbean Sugar: Chinese and Indian Migrants to the British West Indies 1838-1918. Maryland: John Hopkins University Press.

Malik, Asiya. (2014). Remembering Colonial Pasts: Nostalgia, Memory, and the Making of a  Diasporan Community. American Review of Canadian Studies, 44(3), 308–320.

Maringe, F. & Carter, S. (2007). International students’ motivations for studying in the UK HE: Insights into the choice and decision making of African students. International Journal of Educational Management, 21(6), 459-475.

The National Archives. (n.d.). India: Forced Labour. Black Presence: Asian and Black History in Britain 1500-1850. The British National Archives. Retrieved from http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/blackhistory/india/forced.htm

National Museums of Kenya. (2016). Nairobi National Museum. Retrieved April 2, 2016 from     http://www.museums.or.ke/content/blogcategory/11/17/

Ngau, P. (1987). Tensions in Empowerment: The experience of the Harambee (self-help) movement in Kenya. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 35(3), 523-528.

Oluoch, Fred. (2013, August 5). Asian face mass expulsion to Britain as Africanisation starts. Daily Nation. Retrieved from http://www.nation.co.ke/Features/DN2/Asians-face- mass-expulsion-to- Britain/-/957860/1936760/-/15ptm5sz/-/index.html

Oonk, Gijsbert. (2007). Global Indian Diasporas. Exploring Trajectories of Migration and Theory. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam Press.

Oonk, Gijsbert. (2015). South Asians in East Africa, 1800-2000: An entrepreneurial minority caught in a ‘Catch-22.’ Diaspora Studies, 8(1), 66 – 79.

Panesar, Jeevan. (2005). A History of Leicester. Retrieved April 31, 2016, from BBC News: Leicester http://www.bbc.co.uk/leicester/content/articles/2005/10/10/al_leicester_backgrounde r_feature.shtml

Powell, Enoch. (2007, November 6). Enoch Powell’s ‘River of Blood’ speech. The Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/comment/3643823/Enoch-Powells-Rivers-   of-Blood- speech.html

Singh, Anand. (2008). South African Indian migration in the twenty-first century: towards a theory of ‘triple identity.’ Asian Ethnicity, 9(1), 5–16.

Skeldon, Ronald. (2014). Migration and Development: a global perspective. New York:Routledge.

Somerville, Kara & Walsworth, Scott. (2009). Vulnerabilities of Highly Skilled Immigrants in Canada and the United States. American Review of Canadian Studies, 39(2), 147–16.

Stahl, Rune Møller. (n.d). The Economics of Starvation – Laissez-faire Ideology and the Famine in Colonial India. University of Copenhagen. Retrieved on March 12, 2016 from   https://www.academia.edu/8003313/The_Economics_of_Starvation_Laissez-Faire_ideology_and_famine_in_Colonial_India

Stensaker, B. & Harvey, L. (2011). Accountability in higher education: Global perspectives on trust and power. New York: Routledge.

Striking Women. (2016). Map of major South Asian migration flows. Retrieved April 2, 2016 from Striking Women http://www.striking-women.org/page/map- major-south- asian-migration-flow

Striking Women. (2016). Post 1947 migration to US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Retrieved February 25, 2016, from Striking Women http://www.striking-  women.org/module/map- major-south- asian-migration- flows/post- 1947-migration- us-canada- australia-and-new-zealand

Striking Women. (2016). Twice migrants: African Asian migration to the UK. Retrieved February 25, 2016, from Striking Women http://www.striking-women.org/module/map-major-south-asian- migration-flows/twice- migrants-african-asian-migration- uk

The Telegraph. (2013, November 8) Prince Charles and Camilla visit Hindu Temple in Neasden. Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/picturegalleries/royalty/4939185/Prince-Charles-and-Camilla-visit- Hindu-Temple- in-Neasden.html

University of Lincoln. (2011). University of Lincoln. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from  https://www.lincoln.ac.uk/home/international/

University of Nairobi. (2016). University of Nairobi. Retrieved February 23, 2016, from http://www.uonbi.ac.ke/

Vallée, Gérard ed. (2007). Florence Nightingale on Social Change in India: Volume 10. Waterloo, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

Van Dyk, Lindsay. (n.d.) Canadian Immigration Acts and Legislation. The Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21. Retrieved from http://www.pier21.ca/research/immigration-history/canadian- immigration-acts- and- legislation

Verini, James. (2013, October 4). After Westgate Siege, New Respect for Kenya’s Indians. In  National Geographic. Retrieved from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/13/131004-nairobi- westgate-mall-kenyan-indians- gandhi-kikuyus- world/

Vick, Karl. (2000, March 15). A New View of Kenya’s ‘Asians.’ Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPcap/2000- 03/15/064r-031500-idx.html

Wagner, Kim. (2010). The Great Fear of 1857: Rumours, Conspiracies and the Making of the Indian Uprising. Oxfordshire: Peter Lang Ltd.

Multimedia Credits

Images

Image 1.1: Phelps Publishing Co. (c1910). Scenes on Uganda Railway. Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division, LOT 7349 [item] [P&P]. Retrieved from: http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3b13028/

Image 1.2: Illustrated London News, “The Impending Famine in Bengal” (1874). Retrieved from:  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%22The_Impending_Famine_in_Bengal_–_A_Bengalee_Baniah_or_Grain_Seller,%22_from_the_Illustrated_London_News,_1874.jpg

Image 1.3: United Nations, Map of Kenya derived from a United Nations map (2013). Retrieved from: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Un-kenya.png

Image 2.1: Map of East Africa (2011). Retrieved from: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eastern-Africa-map.svg

Image 2.2: President Idi Amin (1973), Archives New Zealand, Archives Reference: AAWV 23583, KIRK1, 5(B), R23930288. Retrieved from:  https://www.flickr.com/photos/archivesnz/9563844511

Image 3.1: “Ugandan Asians Arriving in Britain after being expelled,” (1973). Retrieved from: www.striking-women.org

Image 3.2: “An advert placed by Leicester City Council in the Ugandan newspaper Ugandan Argus telling Ugandan expellees not to come to Leicester,” (1972). Retrieved from: www.striking-women.org

Image 4.1: kev747 (2009). Leicester Town Hall Square, Retrieved from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/kev747/3253541511/in/photostream/

Image 4.2: Mat Fascione (2014). Diwali lights along the Leicester Golden Mile. Retrieved from: http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/4229862

Image 5.1: Map of major South Asian migration flows. Retrieved from: www.striking-women.org

Image 5.2: Ellen Fairclough Stamp (2005). Image courtesy of Canada Post Corporation.

Image 6.1: Vetterli, John (2009). Skyline of Toronto viewed from Harbour. Retrieved from: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Skyline_of_Toronto_viewed_from_Harbour.jpg

Image 6.2: Socka, George (2012). Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Temple in Toronto. Retrieved from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/beachdigital/7377445296/

Image 6.3: Norsworthy, Scott (2014). Ismaili Centre prayer hall in Toronto. Reproduced with permission. Retrieved from: http://www.theismaili.org/heritage-expressions/aga-khan-park-now-and-forever-says-architect

Image 7.1: Ruslik0 (2015). National Nairobi Museum. Retrieved from: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ANairobi_National_Museum_01.JPG

 Sources

Hudson, J. B. (2011). “Upon This Rock” — The Free African American Community of Antebellum Louisville, Kentucky. Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, 109(3-4), 295-326.

Murray, D. (2002). Colonial Justice; Justice, Morality and Crime in the Niagara District, 1791- 1849. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Nelson, C., & Nelson, C. A. (2004). Racism, Eh?: A critical inter-disciplinary anthology of race and racism in Canada. Concord, Ont.: Captus Press.

Pargas, D. A. (2008). Boundaries and Opportunities: Comparing Slave Family Formation in the Antebellum South. Journal of Family History, 33(3), 316-345.

Smardz Frost, K. (2015). A fresh start: Black Toronto in the 19th century. In Lorinc, J., McClelland, M., Scheinberg, E., & Taylor, T. (Eds.), The Ward: The Life and Loss of Toronto’s First Immigrant Neighbourhood (pp. 66-70). Toronto: Coach House Books.

Smardz Frost, K. (2007). I’ve Got a Home in Glory Land: A Lost Tale of the Underground Railroad.  New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Staton, P. (2012). Toronto Women: A Walk through History. Toronto: Green Dragon Press.

Multimedia Credits

Cover Image: A Cabriolet near Quebec City, Canada East, 1848. Credit: Library and Archives Canada, Acc. No. 1970-188-2287 W. Hl. Coverdale Collection of Canadiana.

Image 1.1: Anonymous (1821). View of Maysville, Kentucky. Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:View_of_Maysville,_Kentucky_in_1821.jpg

Image 1.2: Route from Washington to Louisville. Made with ArcGIS Online. Sources: Esri, 2014 National Geographic Society, i-cubed.

Image 2.1: “View of Main Street, Louisville, in 1846,” National Archives, National Archives Identifier 513346. Retrieved from: https://catalog.archives.gov/id/513346[1]

Image 2.2: Mosler, H. (1862). Landing of Ohio Troops at Louisville, Kentucky. Harper’s Weekly. Retrieved from: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Harpers-louisville-wharftrooparrival.jpg

Image 3.1: “Bounty notice for Thornton’s arrest.” Courtesy of Karolyn Smardz Frost (2007). I’ve Got a Home in Glory Land: A Lost Tale of the Underground Railroad. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Image 3.2: Route from Louisville to Jeffersonville. Made with ArcGIS Online. Sources: Esri, 2014 National Geographic Society, i-cubed.

Image 3.3: Route from Jefferson to Detroit. Made with ArcGIS Online. Sources: Esri, 2014 National Geographic Society, i-cubed.

Image 4.1: Old Jail, on the Site now occupied by Public Library. In Silas Farmer (1884). The history of Detroit and Michigan or, the metropolis illustrated, etc. (p.267). Detroit: S. Farmer & Co. British Library HMNTS 10408.m.2. Retrieved from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/11092384153

Image 5.1: Route from Detroit to Toronto. Made with ArcGIS Online. Sources: Esri, 2014 National Geographic Society, i-cubed.

Image 5.2: Main Street, Amherstberg, 1865 (1865).  Alvin D. McCurdy fonds, Archives of Ontario, F 2076-16-6-2-44, I0024850. Retrieved from: http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/explore/online/alvin_mccurdy/big/big_05_main_street.aspx

Image 6.1.: Brigden’s Ltd. (1926). Osgoode Hall, Queen St. W., n.e. corner. Toronto Public Library. Retrieved from: http://www.virtualreferencelibrary.ca/detail.jsp?Entt=RDMDC-PICTURES-R-3889&R=DC-PICTURES-R-3889&searchPageType=vrl

Image 7.1: Poole, Frederic Victor (1912). St. Lawrence Hall. Toronto Public Library. Retrieved from:  http://www.virtualreferencelibrary.ca/detail.jsp?Entt=RDMDC-PICTURES-R-3951&R=DC-PICTURES-R-3951&searchPageType=vrl

Image 7.2: James, William (c.1910). Chicken warehouse, Agnes Street. City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 1244, Item 291. Retrieved from: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Agnes_Street_in_the_Ward.jpg

Sources

Curtis, G. E. (Ed). (1994). Poland: A Country Study. Washington: Library of Congress. Retrieved  from:         http://cdn.loc.gov/master/frd/frdcstdy/po/polandcountrystu00curt_0/polandcountrystu00curt_0.pdf

Hathaway, J. C. (1988). Selective Concern: An Overview of Refugee Law in Canada. McGill Law Journal, 33, 676-715. Retrieved February 13, 2016, from: http://lawjournal.mcgill.ca/userfiles/other/8290193-hathaway.pdf

King, R. (1993). Recent Immigration to Italy: Character, Causes and Consequences. GeoJournal, 30(3), 283-292.

Korcelli, P. (1992). International Migrations in Europe: Polish Perspectives for the 1990s. The   International Migration Review, 26(2), 292-304.

Matejko, A. (1976). Multiculturalism: The Polish-Canadian Case. The Polish Review, 21(3), 177– 194.

McGovern, P. (2007). Immigration, Labour Markets and Employment Relations: Problems and Prospects. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 45(2), 217–235.

McMillan, D. W., & Chavis, D. M. (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory. Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1), 6-23.

Multimedia Credits

Images

Image 1.1: United Nations, Map of Poland derived from a United Nations map (2013). Retrieved from: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Un-poland.png

Image 1.2: Anonymous, Kolejka. Retrieved from: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kolejka.jpeg

Image 2.1: Byers, Victoria (2016). Map illustrating Grażyna’s pathway from Poland to Italy, passing through Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Yugoslavia, and finally arriving in Rome where she lived with her partner for nearly three years before moving to Canada.

Image 2.2: Gorski, Peter (2015). Grażyna’s Polish passport.

Image 3.1: Byers, Victoria (2016). It is estimated that 75% of migrants in Italy were working without proper authorization during this time (Reyneri, 2003, p. 117).

Image 3.2: Skoda Favorit. Image courtesy of Photobeppus © 2007. Retrieved from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/photobeppus/8288340731/in/photolist-dCpUWp-eUB8ya-edkawZ-eR6rJ9-atJfnr-by62QB-gE9fSC-dXt74F-c3arfy-cvixMf-dv8DLg-egQoNf-dj5xrs-fjN2XZ-dvekAy-fjMvBz-egJAYH-dXtrcV-dQvzWh-bVmgRv-fEVAnP-gvb9z6-dd6u8g-dX2Mxw-e9bDmW-dX2ihf-dKMwxh-dcyFeQ-egPTey-eUNwbC-gvbBxA-ccGr5G-a8N6ph-a8KatX-dKFz6p-fZQyq4-dxfhhr-ftZPrW-hihK7q-dmD9FW-gvdmBh-ftZVFE-dXsBMK-ecoKC9-eQUJqi-eWeALj-cvipyq-dqDLDH-cTA37W-cWdqxQ

Image 4.1: Spremo, Boris. Terminal 3 at Pearson Airport in Toronto under construction (June 14 1989). Toronto Star Photographic Archive at the Toronto Public Library. Retrieved from: http://www.virtualreferencelibrary.ca/detail.jsp?Entt=RDMDC-TSPA_0003155F&R=DC-TSPA_0003155F&searchPageType=vrl

Image 4.2: Gorski, Peter (2015). Grażyna and Ryszard at their modest wedding.

Image 5.1: Laney, Alex. Roncevalles Polish Fest 2008 (September 14, 2008). Retrieved from:  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Roncesvalles_Polish_Fest_2008.JPG

Image 6.1: Google. (n.d.). Retrieved April 11, 2015, from: https://www.google.ca/maps/place/Parkwoods,+Toronto,+ON/@43.754013,-79.3412877,14z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x89d4d27cea3803f3:0xe520545cf321bb85

Image 6.2: Gorski, Peter (2015). Grazyna’s home in River Drive Park, Ontario. where she still resides with her husband, Ryszard.

Audio 2.1: Gorski, Grazyna (2015). “It was communism, bad economy, and we was young and liked to move.” (42 seconds). Audio courtesy of Peter Gorski.

Audio 3.1: Gorski, Grazyna (2015). “Actually in Italy we can stay, but it was hard to get citizenship. So we got three choices: Canada Australia and States. But because everybody was saying Canada was the best to live, to start a new life, we decided to come to Canada.” (29 seconds) Audio courtesy of Peter Gorski.

Audio 4.1: Gorski, Grazyna (2015). “They are friends forever.”(46 seconds) Audio courtesy of Peter Gorski.

Audio 5.1: Gorski, Grazyna (2015). “We meet other people but we move very quick from that hotel…” (26 seconds) Audio courtesy of Peter Gorski.

Audio 6.1: Gorski, Grazyna (2015). “We’re happy here, it’s quiet, nice area, good for kids.” (1 min, 54 seconds) Audio courtesy of Peter Gorski.

Sources

Bakan, A.B & Stasiulis, D., eds. (1997). Not one of the family: Foreign domestic workers in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Eric, J. (2012). The rites of passage of Filipinas in Canada: Two migration cohorts. In Coloma, R.S (ed.) Filipinos in Canada: Disturbing Invisibility (pp.123-141). Toronto; Buffalo: University of Toronto Press.

Gonzales, C. (2015, August 27). The nanny diaries: Toronto’s Filipino caregivers talk about low wages, long days, and immigration delays. Toronto Life. Retrieved April 10, 2016. http://torontolife.com/city/toronto-filipino-caregiver-nanny-diaries/

Kelly, P. F., et. al. (2009). Explaining the deprofessionalized Filipino: Why Filipino immigrants get low paying jobs in Toronto. Toronto: CERIS – The Ontario Metropolis Centre.

Khan, S.A. (2009). From labour of love to decent work: Protecting the human rights of migrant caregivers in Canada. Canadian Journal of Law and Society. 24(1): 23-45.

Letchumanan, J. (2013). Filipino nannies: The cost of caring. Pacific Rim. Retrieved April 10, 2016. http://langaraprm.com/2013/community/filipino-nannies-the-cost-of-caring-like-many-foreign-nannies-marilou-tuzon-looks-after-other-families-in-order-to-take-care-of-her-own/

McClelland, S. (2014, January 24). Susan McClelland on nannies from the Philippines: Suffer the Caregiver. National Post. Retrieved April 10, 2016. http://news.nationalpost.com/full-comment/susan-mcclelland-on-nannies-from-the-philippines-suffer-the-caregiver

Nyers, P. (2012). Citizenship, migrant activism and the politics of movement. London:   Routledge.

O’Neil, K. (2014, January 1). Labour export as government policy: The case of the Philippines. Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved April 10, 2016. http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/labor-export-government-policy-case-philippines

Pratt, G. (2012). Families apart: Migrant mothers and the conflicts of labour and love. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Philippine Statistics Authority(PSA). (2010). Census of population and housing of Cagayan Valley. Retrieved from: https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/attachments/hsd/pressrelease/Cagayan%20Valley.pdf

Reed, A.J. (2008). Canada’s experience with managed migration: The strategic use of temporary foreign worker programs. International Journal. 63(2): 469-484.

Simmons, A. B. (2010). Immigration and Canada: Global and transnational perspectives. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.

Tungohen, E. (2012). Debunking notions of migrant “victimhood”: A critical assessment of temporary migration labour migration programs and Filipina migrant activism in Canada. In Coloma, R.S (ed.) Filipinos in Canada: Disturbing invisibility (pp.161-180). Toronto; Buffalo: University of Toronto Press.

Ty, E. (2012). Filipino Canadians in the twenty-first century: The politics of recognition in a transnational affect economy. In Coloma, R.S (ed.) Filipinos in Canada: Disturbing invisibility (pp.46-67). Toronto; Buffalo: University of Toronto Press.

(2011). Global Affairs Canada: Overview – Philippines. Retrieved April 10, 2016. https://www.international.gc.ca/cil-cai/country_insights-apercus_pays/overview-apercu_ph.aspx?lang=eng

(2014). Government of Canada: Live-in caregivers. Retrieved April 10, 2016. http://www.cic.gc.ca/ENGLISH/work/caregiver/index.asp

(2015, January 8). Fact sheet: Temporary foreign workers program and live-in caregiver program. Retrieved April 10, 2016. http://cupe.ca/fact-sheet-temporary-foreign-workers-program-and-live-caregiver-program

(2016). Commission on Filipinos overseas. Retrieved April 10, 2016. http://www.cfo.gov.ph/

Multimedia Credits

Image 1.1: Roadmap of the Philippines, 1985 published by National Book Store. Courtesy of Map and Data Library, University of Toronto.

Image 1.2: Marites’ Birth Certificate ordered in 1988 to prepare for her journey to Canada. Courtesy of Marites Navarro, 2015.

Image 2.1: OWWA celebrates 20th Migrant Workers Day (June 18, 2015). Courtesy of Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA). Retrieved from http://www.owwa.gov.ph/?q=content/owwa-celebrates-20th-migrant-workers-day

Image 3.1: Google. (n.d.). [Flight from the Philippines to Toronto]. Retrieved April 11, 2015, from: https://www.google.ca/maps/dir/Manila+International+Airport,+Pasay,+NCR,+Philippines/Toronto+Pearson+International+Airport,+Silver+Dart+Drive,+Mississauga,+ON/@20.8555442,163.3220368,3z/data=!4m14!4m13!1m5!1m1!1s0x3397cec5d2bb4d77:0x8a24fa628a114411!2m2!1d121.016508!2d14.5122739!1m5!1m1!1s0x882b394ac02dd491:0xb41d5de9c4030ec5!2m2!1d-79.6248197!2d43.6777176!3e4

Image 3.2: Marites and nine of her fifteen roommates. Marites is pictured in the bottom row, first on the left. Courtesy of Marites Navarro, 2015.

Image 4.1: A picture of a winter celebration at Marites’s weekend home, including Marites, a friend, and the second family that employed her. Courtesy of Marites Navarro, 2015.

Image 4.2: Marites and her third charge, the young son of her third employer. Courtesy of Marites Navarro, 2015.

Image 5.1: Google. (n.d.). [A city map shows Marites’ mobility in Toronto from arriving to settling down]. Retrieved from: https://www.google.com/maps/d/edit?mid=1hvdUR80ploVNJtJ3Waa7_AWdqhQ

Image 5.2: Marites Navarro’s Certificate of Graduation as Bachelors of Science in Medical Technology. Issued by Manila Central University. Courtesy of Marites Navarro, 2015.

Image 5.3: The letter confirming Marites’ eligibility to be a Medical Lab Technologist in the province of Ontario. Courtesy of Marites Navarros. Courtesy of Marites Navarro, 2015.

Audio

Audio 3.1: Marites describes her feeling on her plane ride to Toronto. Courtesy of Marites Navarro, 2015.

Audio 5.1: Marites describes her feeling on finally getting a house of her own. Courtesy of Marites Navarro, 2015.

Sources

Anti-slavery Society (Great Britain). (c. 1823). Anti-Slavery Society. London: Ellerton and Henderson.

Atwood, M. (1970). The journals of Susanna Moodie. Toronto: Oxford University Press.

Atwood, M. & Pachter, C. (1997). The journals of Susanna Moodie. Toronto: Macfarlane Walter & Ross.

Ballstadt, C. (2015). Susanna Moodie: 1803-1885. Poetry Foundation. Retrieved from: http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/susanna-moodie

Ballstadt, C., Hopkins, E. & Peterman, M. (Eds.). (1985). Susanna Moodie: Letters of a lifetime. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Ballstadt, C., Hopkins, E. & Peterman, M. (Eds.) (1993). Letters of love and duty: The correspondence of Susanna and John Moodie. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Ballstadt, C., Hopkins, E. & Peterman, M. (1996). I bless you in my heart: Selected correspondence of Catharine Parr Traill. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Bentley, D. M. R. (1990). Breaking the “cake of custom”: The Atlantic crossing as a Rubicon for female emigrants to Canada? In L. McMullin (Ed.), Re(dis)covering our foremothers: nineteenth-century Canadian women writers (pp. 91-34). Ottawa, ON: University of Ottawa Press.

Bigot, C. (2014). Did they go native? Representations of first encounters and personal interrelations with First Nations Canadians in the writings of Susanna Moodie and Catharine Parr Traill. The Journal of Commonwealth Literature, 49(1), 99-111. doi:10.1177/0021989413497952

Dean, M. (1998). Practising femininity: Domestic realism and performance of gender in early Canadian fiction. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Delgado, A. B. (2005). Paradigms of Canadian literary biography. Prose Studies, 27(3), 330-343. doi:10.1080/01440350500223891

Fur, G. (2014). Indians and immigrants: Entangled histories. Journal of American Ethnic History, 33(3) 55-76.

Gerson, C. (1997). Nobler savages: Representations of native women in the writings of Susanna Moodie and Catharine Parr Traill. Journal of Canadian Studies, 32(2), 5-21.

Library and Archives Canada. (2001). Susanna Moodie and Catharine Parr Traill. Retrieved from: https://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/moodie-traill/index-e.html

Matt, S. (2011). Homesickness: an American history. New York: Oxford University Press.

Moodie, J. W. D. (1866). Scenes and adventures, as a soldier and settler. Montreal, QC: Lovell.

Moodie, S. S. (1838). Diary of Susannah Moodie, May, 1832 – September 1837. In Six years in the bush: Or, extracts from the journal of a settler in Upper Canada. London, England: Simpkin, Marshall & Co. S2016-D002.

Moodie, S. (1866). Poems. Ontario: unpublished manuscript (Thomas Fisher Rare Books Library).

Moodie, S. (1989). Roughing it in the bush; Or, life in Canada. Toronto, ON: The Canadian Publishers.

Moodie, S. (1991). Voyages: Short narratives of Susanna Moodie. Thurston, J. (Ed.). Ottawa, ON: University of Ottawa Press.    

Moodie, S. (2010). Life in the clearings versus the bush. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.

O’Gallagher, M. (1984). Grosse Île: Gateway to Canada, 1832-1937. Ste-Foy, Québec: Carraig Books.

Peterman, M. A. (1999). Susanna Moodie: A life. Toronto: ECW Press.

Thompson, E. (1991). The pioneer woman: A Canadian character type. Montreal, QC: McGill-Queens University Press.

Warner, A., & Strickland, S. (1831). Negro slavery described by a negro: Being the narrative of Ashton Warner, a native of St. Vincent’s: with an appendix containing the testimony of four Christian ministers recently returned from the colonies on the system of slavery as it now exists. London: S. Maunder.

Wilson, E. (1834). Emigration: Practical advice to emigrants, on all points connected with their comfort and economy, from making choice of a ship, to settling on and cropping a farm. London, UK: E. Wilson.

Multimedia Credits

Images

Image 1.1: Miniature portrait of Susanna Strickland © Public Domain. Source: National Library of Canada NL-15557. Retrieved from: https://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/moodie-traill/027013-200-e.html#copy29

Image 1.2: Reydon Hall © Public Domain. Source: National Archives of Canada PA-202944. Retrieved from: https://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/moodie-traill/027013-200-e.html#copy29

Image 2.1: “Canada East” (1850). Maps and Atlases: North America and the Polar Regions. William C. Wonders Map Collection, Cameron Library, University of Alberta. Retrieved from: http://tinyurl.galegroup.com/tinyurl/3BfFf6

Image 2.2: Log house illustration from The Backwoods of Canada © Public Domain. Source: National Library of Canada F5458 T7 1836. Retrieved from: https://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/moodie-traill/027013-200-e.html#copy29

Image 3.1: A representation of maple syrup production, that appears in an 18th century Dutch source, and could reflect how the practice may have appeared before the Moodies arrived in Canada. Image courtesy of the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, University of Toronto.

Image 4.1: Warner, A. (1831). Negro slavery described by a Negro : being the narrative of Ashton Warner, a native of St. Vincent’s : with an appendix containing the testimony of four Christian ministers recently returned from the colonies, on the system of slavery as it now exists / by S. Strickland. Goldsmith’s Library, University of London. Retrieved from: http://find.galegroup.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/mome/infomark.do?&source=gale&prodId=MOME&userGroupName=utoronto_main&tabID=T001&docId=U3608855212&type=multipage&contentSet=MOMEArticles&version=1.0&docLevel=FASCIMILE

Image 5.1: Henderson, Alexander (ca. 1869). Backwoods Farm. Library and Archives Canada, K-0000020. Accession number 1980-149 NPC. Retrieved from:  http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/pam_archives/index.php?fuseaction=genitem.displayItem&lang=eng&rec_nbr=3241709 [2]

Image 5.2: Moodie, Susanna. Wildflowers. © Traill Estate. Source: Traill Family Collection/C-094434, National Archives of Canada, nlc-1432. Retrieved from: https://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/moodie-traill/027013-200.3-e.html

Image 6.1: Skyline view of Toronto, 1885-1895: City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 1478, Item 6.

Image 6.2: “City of Toronto compiled from surveys made to the present date 1866,” Lithographed, Printed & Published by W.C. Chewett & Co. 17 & 19 King St. East, Toronto. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved from: http://collectionscanada.gc.ca/pam_archives/index.php?fuseaction=genitem.displayItem&lang=eng&rec_nbr=4138857&rec_nbr_list=4138856,4138855,4131795,4138857,4131794,4138854,4132015,4131761,4149043,4135969[4]

Sources

Chimbos, P. (1999). The Greek Diaspora in the Twentieth Century. London: Palgrave MacMillan.

Chimbos, P. (1980). The Canadian Odyssey: The Greek Experience in Canada. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.

Gavaki, E. (1980). “The Greek Canadian Family: Tradition and Change,” in K. Ishwaran, Canadian Families: Ethnic Variations. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.,p. 27-40.

Greek Canadian History Project. Clara Thomas Archives and Special Collections, York University, from http://archives.library.yorku.ca/gchp/

Panagakos, A. (2004). Recycled Odyssey: Creating Transnational Families in the Greek Diaspora.  Global Networks 4:3, p. 299‐311.

Tamos, A, Efie Gavakis and Efrosini Gavaki. (2002). From Migrants to Citizen. Melbourne:  National Centre for Hellenic Studies and Research, La Trobe University.

Multimedia Credits

Davies, B. (1969). The 80 Goes to Sparta. Retrieved February 29, 2016, from https://www.nfb.ca/film/80_goes_to_sparta

Images

Image 1.1: The City of Xanthi, Greece. 1960s. Courtesy of the Paparizos family, 2016.

Image 1.2: Google. (n.d.). [The red pin indicates Kastoria; the green pin indicates Xanthi]. Retrieved April 10, 2016, from https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3w_5U6huK1JZThZSlc1Zkxsamc/view

Image 2.1: National Harbours Board (1934). Majestic alongside the Nova Scotian Hotel at Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada in 1934. Pier 20 is to the left and Pier 21 to the right. Retrieved from: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pier21in1934.jpg

Image 2.2: Peter with family and friends at a Bouzoukia in Xanthi, Greece.  Courtesy of the Paparizos Family, 2016.

Image 2.3: Peter with his family and grandparents in Xanthi, Greece. Courtesy of the Paparizos Family, 2016.

Image 3.1: Danforth Avenue looking east to Luttrell. (June 1959). City of Toronto Archives, Fonds 200, Series 372, Subseries 100, Item 278.

Image 4.1: Withrow Park, Withrow Ave, Toronto, 1960s. Pictured (from Left to Right): Peter, his cousin, his grandfather, and his sister. Courtesy of the Paparizos Family, 2016.

Image 4.2: Street signs on Danforth Ave. Courtesy of S. Read (2016).

Image 5.1: Yukon Fur Co., Spadina Ave. Courtesy of S. Read (2016).

Image 5.2: Google. (n.d.). [Kastoria]. Retrieved April 10, 2016, from https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3w_5U6huK1JSURxUFBMeVFpYTQ/view

Image 5.3: “myself” (2007). View of Kastoria.  Retrieved from: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kostur.jpg

Image 6.1: Pictured: Peter and his friends in the restaurant where he worked after studying the fur trade. Peter is shown second from the right. Courtesy of the Paparizos Family, 2016.

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